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Whole-Body Strength Training for Cyclists

Whole-Body Strength Training for Cyclists

As a cyclist, you’re constantly joking about only needing “legs and lungs”. The goal of a cyclist is to be as light as possible, with the highest amount of power to weight ratio coming from the legs, pushing into the pedals. That is why there are plenty of memes out there of cyclists with stick thin arms and torso, but with massive quads and hamstrings, and titles such as “Don’t miss leg day!”. Jokes aside, imbalances such as these can have a potentially detrimental effect on your long-term health. Strength training for cyclists is key for injury prevention and performance.

As cycling is a relatively low weight-bearing sport, it is beneficial for cyclists to engage in additional loaded strength training to address a variety of issues from bone density to muscular balance. Obviously, strength demands differ between cyclists – a road cyclist, track cyclist, mountain biker or BMX rider will all have very different needs, but the tips I share below can be used a general guideline, across all types of cycling.

 

 

Strength training for cyclists are a great addition to your training routine

Strength and conditioning programs should be kept as simple as possible. As often is the case, it is the simple stuff that works best and has stood the test of time.  The programs I recommend to a lot of my patients, typically contain the exercises below.

Sample workout
Compound Push (Knee Dominant) Back Squat/ Goblet Squat
Upper Body Push (Horizontal) Dumbbell Chest Press, Bench Press
Upper Body Pull (Horizontal) Bent over rows, Seated rows
Compound Pull Offset/Single Legged (Hip Dominant) Offset Romanian Deadlift, Offset Trap Bar Deadlift
Trunk Stability (Anti Rotation) Pallof Press, Plank + KB drags
*One of the Compound movements needs to be single legged or offset Work in 3 sets of 5-8 repetition with 2 RIR (Reps in Reserve)

By utilising a full body routine such as this, all the major components of the body will be covered, and even if a session is missed, you’ll know you are always covering the full body in each session. Optimally, you would want to engage this routine two times a week for adequate loading-for-strength benefits.

Compound movements are multi-joint movements which utilise multiple groups of muscles at the same time. Utilising a multi-joint movement under adequate weight helps to develop the ability to generate force through those joints. For a cyclist, the ability to generate better force in the hips and knees, coupled with bike specific training, may lead to an increase in power production.

I also added a note in the table to ensure one of the hip or knee dominant exercise needs to be either single legged or offset. Single leg/offset work is often underutilised, but is a very effective tool for stability. It also assists with restoring any imbalances you may have developed over the years, either through injuries or poor habits. I recommend that single-sided work be done towards the back end of the exercise session, as you would not often use as heavy weight. What’s more, doing single-sided work with a bit of fatigue from all the previous work sets will really challenge ones stability under appropriate weight.

The Importance of Upper Body Strength for Cyclists

For a cyclist, upper body work is not hugely important from a max strength or bulk point of view, however having good muscle tone in the upper body musculature is important for general well-being in everyday life. You don’t want to be “that” cyclist who is strong in the legs but weak with poor tone in the upper body, “that” cyclist who injures the neck or shoulder lifting a bag of groceries. Dependent on what field of cycling, some streams like track cycling and BMX may require a bit more upper body bulk and strength compared to road cycling and mountain biking.

Don’t forget to switch it up!

For a bit of variation in your workouts, you can alternate your sessions by switching the compound hip/knee dominant work around so you can focus the heavier work on the other compound exercises whilst offset/single leg work on the other. This will create a nice balance in loading for different movement patterns. I would try to do the heavy and double legged compound work at the start of the session and do the single leg or offset compound movements towards the mid or latter end of the session. Also for upper body work you can switch between horizontal movements like bench press and bent over rows with vertical upper body movements like overhead dumbbell press and lat pull down. See example in the table below.

Sample Variation
Compound Pull (Hip Dominant) Traditional deadlift, Trap-bar Deadlift
Upper Body Push (Vertical) Dumbbell Overhead Shoulder Press, Barbell overhead press
Upper Body Pull (Vertical) Lat Pull Down, Chin Ups
Compound Press Offset/Single legged (Knee Dominant) Bulgarian Split Squat, Lunges
Trunk Stability (Rotation) Woodchop, Medicine ball trunk rotations
*One of the Compound movements needs to be single legged or offset *Work in 3 sets of 5-8 repetition with 2 RIR (Reps in Reserve)

Hopefully what I have covered here about strength training for cyclists will be helpful as a starting point for a simple strength and conditioning program. As always, check in with your strength and conditioning focused allied health professional to determine if these recommendations are suitable for you.

The best advice I can give is, keep it simple and sustainable. The session need not be super long in duration – aim for 30-45 minutes to be done with your program. Over time, as you develop more experience and build up a repertoire of exercises you are familiar with, in each of the categories, you will be able to interchange exercises that are similar in each category to keep your work out fresh and engaging.

 

As with undertaking any new program or form of exercise, if you have any medical concerns, please check with your doctor. Or, should you need some tailored advice for strength training for cyclists – come see us here at PhysioTec.
Eric Huang is a qualified physiotherapist who specialises in cycling related pain and injuries. He has a passion for all things cycling, is a competitive cyclist himself, and runs his own cycling crew. Call 3342 4284 to book an appointment with Eric.

 

References:

Nicols JF, Palmer JE, Levy SS (2003) Low bone mineral density in highly trained male master cyclists. Osteoporos Int. 14:644-649

Rønnestad, B.R., Hansen, E.A. & Raastad, T. In-season strength maintenance training increases well-trained cyclists’ performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 110, 1269–1282 (2010)

Westcott, Wayne L. PhD. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Current Sports Medicine Reports: July/August 2012 – Volume 11 – Issue 4 – p 209-216

Louis, J., Hausswirth, C., Easthope, C. et al. Strength training improves cycling efficiency in master endurance athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 112, 631–640 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2013-1

 

Shall we dance? The health benefits of dancing at any age

Shall we dance? The health benefits of dancing at any age

Patients often ask me, “what is the best form of exercise?”. The answer I usually give is “The kind you enjoy”. My reasoning is, if you enjoy doing something then it is far more likely you will find the time to do it – an opinion supported by research1. So, if the gym isn’t your cup of tea, you don’t fancy a jog around the neighbourhood or it’s too cold for a swim – have you thought about dance as a form of exercise? Enjoyment is merely one reason to dance – once you hear about all the health benefits of dance, you’ll be shimmying back for more!

Dancing is great for fitness

Dance as exercise really is the allrounder when it comes to physical health benefits2. Studies show dance classes are as good for you, if not better, than other forms of structured exercise3. With so many types of dance available, you’re almost certain to find one you’ll enjoy. You can begin dancing at almost any age, so whether you’re 5 or 95, interested in ballet or belly-dancing, tap or tango, read on and see how dancing can help improve your health and wellness!

Cardiovascular improvement

Most of us know that physical activity and getting our heart pumping can help improve the function of our heart and lungs. The Australian government guidelines for exercise recommends adults participate in 2 ½ to 5 hours of moderate intensity physical activity (you can talk but not sing during the activity) or 1 ¼ to 2 ½ hour of vigorous activity (can’t say more than a few words without stopping for breath) each week4. A US intergenerational program showed both children and adults can reach their target heart rates through dance5. By incorporating ballet classes or line dancing lessons a couple of times a week and enjoying the petite allegro or Boot Scootin’ Boogie, you can gain the wonderful heart-pumping benefits that dancing can provide6.

Muscle strength and endurance

Ever admired the toned legs of a ballet dancer or the stamina of couples competing on dance tv shows? You too can enjoy strengthening your lower limbs and improve your endurance by attending regular dance classes.  Studies show that regardless of the type of dance, if you attend 3 hour-long classes a week, you’ll likely develop stronger legs and improved endurance in just 12 weeks7.

Balance and posture

Most everyday activity, such as walking, has us travelling in fairly straight lines without too much change in the level of our heads. Even when you’re at the gym – be it on a treadmill, stair climber or stationary bike – your movement is fairly limited. Dance on the other hand has us moving in all directions – forward, backward, sideways – often covering a lot of area. In addition to moving more in all directions, dancing often includes turns, jumps and sometimes even floor work.  When you’re performing that tango turn or jazz pirouette, you’ll be challenging your balance and dynamic postural control. This makes most forms of dancing ideal for improving our balance, and helping reduce the risk of falls, particularly as we age7,8,9.

Mobility and flexibility

We know that staying active and moving the joints is beneficial to joint health but there is some perception that dancing, particularly ballet, can lead to wear and tear on the hips.  This has not proven to be the case with an Australian study showing no difference in hip joint changes between professional ballet dancers and other athletes10. In fact, movement of the limbs during dance can help maintain flexibility, strengthen joint supporting muscles and keep the joints healthy9. Dance lessons have also been shown to help people with mobility issues, such as those with Parkinson’s disease. Recent research revealed regular dance classes improved the functional ability of people with Parkinson’s making it easier for them to move and get around11.

Dancing engages the brain and has “feel good” benefits

Not only do we see physical benefits in those who regularly participate in dance lessons, but dance can also give your brain a boost and improve your emotional wellbeing.

Memory and attention

If you’ve already attended a dance class, you’ll know how challenging remembering the combination of steps and movements can be. Perhaps you’ve also marvelled at more experienced classmates and their ability to pick up steps quickly or remember the choreography. Learning a dance sequence is like doing mental push-ups or a physical crossword for the brain, and the more you dance the better you’ll become. Challenging the brain to remember the steps and putting them all together in movement improves our “brain plasticity” and helps build our grey and white matter. In fact,  dancing improves our brains function much better than conventional exercise and can help stave off age-related mental impairments like poor memory and attention12.

Mental health and social connection

While those of us getting older will be especially keen on the mobility and memory benefits that dancing provides, there are also emotional benefits for people of all ages. Dancing can be a great way for adolescents (or people of any age) to deal with emotional distress.

A recent study found that teenage girls showed less nervousness, anxiety and and even reported less headaches and stomach aches while attending regular dance classes13.  Other studies have show similar benefits; A 12 week dance course lowered depression in a group of university students14 and a group of 60 – 82 year old’s reported improved social activities and networks through dance classes15. Regardless of dance style, people of all ages and cultural groups report a greater sense of happiness, social connectedness and life satisfaction through dance participation15.

Dance is great, whatever your age

Now that you know dancing can significantly improve balance, strength, endurance, mobility, memory and wellbeing, why not take a look to see what dance classes are available near you? Many dance schools offer classes for all ages including beginner classes for adults or those returning after a long hiatus. So grab a friend, sign up for a class and get moving!

(And if you’re isolating – there’s never been a better time to dance like nobody’s watching!)

 

As with undertaking any new form of exercise, if you have any medical concerns, please check with your doctor. Or should you feel worried about a particular physical issue – unsure if you can boogie with a “bad knee” or practice ballet with a bunion – come see us here at PhysioTec. We’ll do a thorough assessment and provide you with some individualised exercises and advice in preparation to really enjoy and gain the most from your dance classes.

Joanne Manning is a qualified physiotherapist with a special interest in dance rehabilitation and injury prevention. Call 3342 4284 to book an appointment with Joanne.

 

References

1. Dishman, R. e. (2005). Enjoyment Mediates Effects of a School-Based Physical-Activity Intervention. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 37 – Issue 3 – p 478-487 doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000155391.62733.A7.

2. Hwang PW, B. K. (2015). The Effectiveness of Dance Interventions to Improve Older Adults’ Health: A Systematic Literature Review. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 21(5):64-70.

3. Fong Yan, A. C. (2018). The Effectiveness of Dance Interventions on Physical Health Outcomes Compared to Other Forms of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 933–951.

4. Government, A. (2021, March 30). Factsheet: Adults 18-64. Retrieved from The Department of Health: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/fs-18-64 years

5. Schroeder K, R. S. (2017). Dance for Health: An Intergenerational Program to Increase Access to Physical Activity.  Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 37:29-34.

6. Gronek P, W. D. (2020 ). A Review of Exercise as Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathology and Mechanism. Ageing and Disease , Mar 9;11(2):327-340.

7. Rodrigues-Krause J, K. M.-O. (2019 ). Dancing for Healthy Aging: Functional and Metabolic Perspectives. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Jan;25(1):44-63.

8. Wallmann HW, G. C. (2008). The effect of a senior jazz dance class on static balance in healthy women over 50 years of age: a pilot study. Biological Research for Nursing, 10(3):257–266.

9. Joung HJ, L. Y. (2019). Effect of Creative Dance on Fitness, Functional Balance, and Mobility Control in the Elderly. Gerontology, 65(5):537-546.

10. Mayes S, F. A. (2016 ). Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes. Clinical Rheumatology, 35(12):3037-3043.

11. Carapellotti AM, S. R. ( 2020). The efficacy of dance for improving motor impairments, non-motor symptoms, and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 15(8):e0236820.

12. Rehfeld K, L. A. (2018 ). Dance training is superior to repetitive physical exercise in inducing brain plasticity in the elderly. PLoS One, Jul 11;13(7).

13. Mansfield L, K. T. (2018). Sport and dance interventions for healthy young people (15–24 years) to promote subjective well-being: a systematic review. BMJ Open, 8:e020959.

14. Akandere M, D. B. (2011). The effect of dance over depression. Coll Antropol , 35:651–6.

15. Sheppard A, B. M. ( 2020). Promoting wellbeing and health through active participation in music and dance: a systematic review. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Health and Well-being, 15(1):1732526.